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Sexual anatomy and physiology of erection

The penis is most important male sex organ consists primarily of three cylinders of spongy tissue bound in thick membrane sheaths. The cylindrical body on the underside of penis is called corpus-spongiosum.

The other two spongy bodies side by side is known as corpora caveronsa, a tube like structure is there in between these spongy tissue to carry semen & urine is known as urethra.

Physiology of erection

As sexual stimulation which may be visual tactile auditory or imagined the arteries supplying the penis dilate and large quantities of blood enter the blood sinuses. Expansion of these spaces compresses the vein draining of the penis. So blood draining is lowed, these vascular change due to local release of nitric oxide and a parasympathetic reflex result in an erection, So good vascularity has a pivot role in erection.

Discussion about the size of penis

Size of penis is quite common confusion in general public. So I am discussing the same issue here. Size of the non-erect penis differs widely from one male to another. The average length is about 9.5 cm approximately 4 inches. If a penis is small in non-erect (flaccid) position usually have large percentage volume increase seen in such penis. Then men who have a large non-erect (flaccid) penis.

Our society generally believes that biggest is best and a big penis will provide more satisfaction but truth is something else, penis size has little physiological effect on a woman.

Vagina accommodates according to the size of penis whether the circumference or length. Inner portion of the vagina and the cervix have few sensory nerve endings.

Men who are extremely anxious about the size of penis appear to be more likely to develop sexual difficulties than other men. These difficulties ranges from the avoidance of potentially sexual relationships because of embarrassment or worry to difficulty in obtaining or maintaining an erection due to poor self confidence fortunately this type of problem can usually be overcome by brief sex counseling in therapy.

The Scrotum

The scrotum is a supporting bag like structure for testes, Scrotum separated into lateral portions by a median ridge called raphe.

This separating septum is made of superficial muscle tissue called dartos muscle, which consist of bundles of smooth muscle fibres. When the dartos muscle contract it wrinkle the skin of the scrotum an elevates the testes. Normal sperm production requires a temperature about 2-3 degree Fahrenheit below than other body temperature. The cremaster muscle a small band of skeletal muscle in the spermatic cord that is a continuation of the internal oblique muscle which elevates the testes upon exposure in cold.


The testies or testicles are paired oval glands measuring 5 cm (2") long and 2.5 cm (1") in diameter. In adults although one testicle generally hangs lower than the other. Mostly the left testes are lower than the right one. The testes have two separate functions : Hormones and Sperms production. The most important cell in the testes is Leydig's cells to produce testosterone which control male sex development and plays an important role in sexual interest and function.

The epidermis and vas deferens

The semiferous Tubels are those tubes where sperms are produced empty into epididymis a highly coiled tubing network folded against the back surface of each testis.

The Accessory Sex Glands

The Accessory Sex Glands secrets most of the liquid portion of semen.

The seminal vesicles

The paired seminal vesicles lying paired to the base of the urinary bladder and anterior to rectum. These gland secretes an alkaline viscous fluid that contains fructose prostaglandin and clotting proteins.

These secretions are alkaline in nature of the seminal fluid that help to neutralize The acidic environment of female reproduction tract.

The Prostate is Single gland Inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra prostate that secretes a slightly milky acidic fluid that helps semen coagulate after ejaculation and subsequently breaks down the clot.

Bulbourethral (cowper's glands) secrete alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidic environment of the ureathra and mucus that lubricate the living of the ureathra and the tip of the penis during sex intercourse.

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